## Test Driving, knitR

Test Driving, knitR
Use the MTCars dataset for this exercise. slide 44 session 3 File attached
This assignment will be somewhat free-form. You will use R functions to perform various tasks on your data, and use knitR to mix in text, code, and output into a single document. When you are done, you will create a pdf, and that pdf will be your final output that you will upload here.
Start with the statistical functions on slide 44 of the Session Three presentation (which i have attached file), looking at MPG.

Below is The second question
2Q)
KnitR3
Now we’ll integrate more things into our investigation.
First, fix any errors in your previous knitR work before continuing.
Now we’re going to dig into our cars some more. Start by using the lattice library to do a histogram of the mtcars data we’ve been working with. Show a histogram of the mileage of each engine based upon the number of cyl in a single plot. Do the same thing for transmission type and number of gears. Write some thoughts about the results of these observations.
Now we’re going to do some modeling. Instead of doing an aov table of effects, do an aov table of means, modeling mpg and cyl. Do the same thing with mpg and am, and mpg and gear. Write about these observations.
Finally, let’s do a linear model. Write about what you’re about to do, then create a linear model for mpg against weight from the original mtcars dataset. Run a coef of the Model and report it out. Explain in your paper what this accomplishes. Then plot the actual mpg data against the linear model you got earlier from the slope and intercept. Play with some of the other useful functions available. USE LATEX FOR THIS QUESTION

Write a summary of the work you’ve done, and what you believe these observations demonstrate
Sent you session8 PDF for your reference.
install LaTEX is important because I wanted you to be exporting directly from knitR to pdf, which uses LaTEX and gives a specific look to your paper.
in (LaTEX) JUST NEED TO DO INSERT INPUT GET THE OUTPUT AND EXPORT TO PDF

## Describe how trustworthiness is measured for qualitative data.

Categorize the need identified in your practicum project as outlined in Practical Guide to Needs Assessment.
Determine the practicum project’s return on investment and discuss the following in regard to your data collection and analysis:
Describe how the data collection method reflects the purpose of the needs assessment.
Describe how reliability and validity are measured for quantitative data.
Describe how trustworthiness is measured for qualitative data.
Organize this information and your data in a table format.
Click the Assignment Files tab to submit your assignment and visual representation.
Content: 3 points possible
Points possible
Points earned
Created a table that includes the data for decision-making.
1

Included the following information in their table:
Describe how the data collection method reflects the purpose of the needs assessment.
How reliability and validity are measured–for quantitative data?
How trustworthiness is measured–for qualitative data?
2

Format: 2 points possible
Points possible
Points earned
Table is accurate, neat, logical, organized and easily understandable.
2

Rules of grammar, usage, and punctuation were followed; spelling is correct.
Any intellectual property is recognized with in-text citations and a reference page.
Total
5

## For this exercise, you need to watch the Nielsen Media Research Video Case.

This exercise relates to Chapter 4 in your textbook.
For this exercise, you need to watch the Nielsen Media Research Video Case.
To receive credit for this exercise, create a new journal entry and answer the following questions:
Nielsen has sister companies that track Internet activity around the world, box office receipts, and the retail sales of audio and video entertainment products and books. Who are the likely clients of these companies, and how would they use its research?
Much of Nielsen’s research is still reported manually by the subjects of its surveys. Do you think this method provides reliable and unbiased results? Why or why not? Why do you think Nielsen has a policy of prohibiting volunteer participants in its television surveys?
What are some advantages and disadvantages of the newer methods of automated data collection that both Nielsen and Google are exploring? Are there any privacy questions at issue in these new methods? How would a marketing research company deal with them?

## Carbon Taxes

Policy Application: Carbon Taxes
A group of prominent Republicans have proposed a carbon tax to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.[1] The proposal includes a revenue-neutral[2] carbon tax that would start at \$40/ton and then gradually increase over time. The proposal is expected to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 28% by 2025.[3] All of the funds raised from the carbon tax would be returned to Americans on an “equal and quarterly basis via dividend checks, direct deposits or contributions to their individual retirement accounts.”2 A family of four is expected to receive around \$2,000 in the first year of the program.
Assume: The proposal is enacted and that each U.S. citizen receives \$500 per year. The X-axis on your graph should be “Gallons of fossil fuel consumed per year” and the
Y-axis should be “Money spent on all other goods per year.”
Do you think gasoline consumption is a normal or inferior good? Explain and keep this in mind when you answer parts (b) and (c).
Evaluate this proposal using indifference curves and budget constraints for a consumer who doesn’t consume a lot of gasoline (“Prius”). What effect will this proposal likely have on Prius’s gasoline consumption? Prius’s utility?
Assume there are two individuals (“Hummer” and “Prius”) and that they earn the same annual income.
Evaluate this proposal using indifference curves and budget constraints for a consumer who consumes a lot of gasoline (“Hummer”). What effect will this proposal likely have on Hummer’s gasoline consumption? Hummer’s utility?

[1] Baker, James A. III et al. 2017. The Conservative Case for Carbon Dividends (February). Available at: https://www.clcouncil.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/…
[2] Revenue-neutral means that there is no net increase in taxes.
[3] Hess, Hannah. 2017. A Group of Prominent Republicans Just Launched a Longshot Bid for a Carbon Tax Science (February 8).